2005/Aug/05

apt เป็นชื่อของโปรแกรมที่ใช้ในการบริหารและจัดการแพคเก็จ ซึ่งแต่เดิมนั้น มีเฉพาะใน debian linux เท่านั้น ซึ่งซอฟต์แวร์แพคเก็จของ debian นั้น จะมีนามสกุลลงท้ายด้วย .deb ส่วน redhat/fedora นั้น ซอฟต์แวร์แพคเก็จจะมีนามสกุลลงท้ายด้วย .rpm และโปรแกรมที่ใช้ในการบริหารจัดการ (อัพเดต, ติดตั้ง , เอาออก) จะเป็น yum และ up2date ครับ แต่อย่างไรก็ตาม ได้มีการพัฒนาใช้ redhat/fedora สามารถใช้งานโปรแกรม apt และ synaptic ซึ่งสามารถจัดการกับแพคเก็จต่างๆ ได้ดีกว่า yum และ up2date ครับ

ขั้นตอนการติดตั้ง

1. ก่อนอื่นให้เราทำการติดตั้งโปรแกรม apt ด้วย yum เลยครับ

#yum install apt

พอติดตั้งเสร็จแล้ว ไฟล์คอนฟิกจะอยู่ที่ /etc/apt ครับ
2. เพิ่มแหล่งที่เก็บโปรแกรม(repositories) ที่จะใช้ในการอัพเดตและติดตั้งโปรแกรม

  • สร้างไฟล์ dag.list ไว้ที่ /etc/apt/source.list.d/ โดยมีข้อมูลดังนี้
# Name: Dag RPM Repository
# URL: http://dag.wieers.com/apt/
# GPG Key run:
#rpm --import http://dag.wieers.com/packages/RPM-GPG-KEY.dag.txt
rpm http://apt.sw.be fedora/4/en/i386 dag
  • สร้างไฟล์ dries.list ไว้ที่ /etc/apt/source.list.d โดยมีข้อมูลดังนี้
# Name: Dries RPM Repository
#GPG rpm --import http://dries.ulyssis.org/rpm/RPM-GPG-KEY.dries.txt
rpm http://apt.sw.be dries/fedora/fc4/i386 dries

  • สร้างไฟล์ freshrpms.list ไว้ที่ /etc/apt/source.list.d โดยมีข้อมูลดังนี้
# Name: FreshRPMS
# URL: http://ayo.freshrpms.net/
# GPG Key run:
#rpm --import http://freshrpms.net/packages/RPM-GPG-KEY.txt
rpm http://ayo.freshrpms.net fedora/linux/4/i386 core freshrpms updates extras tupdates


จากนั้นทำการเพิ่ม GPG KEY เข้าไปในฐานข้อมูลแพคเก็จ เพื่อใช้ในการตรวจสอบความสมบูรณ์ของแพคเก็จ

#
rpm --import http://dag.wieers.com/packages/RPM-GPG-KEY.dag.txt
#rpm --import http://dries.ulyssis.org/rpm/RPM-GPG-KEY.dries.txt
#rpm --import http://freshrpms.net/packages/RPM-GPG-KEY.txt

จากนั้นทำการตรวจสอบการใช้งานโปรแกรมดังนี้
#apt-get update
ซึ่งโปรแกรม apt-get ก็จะทำการดึงดัชนีของโปรแกรมต่างๆ มาเก็บไว้

การอัพเดตแพคเก็จทั้งหมด
ใช้ออพชัน update เพื่อปรับปรุงดัชนีของแพคเก็จต่างๆ จากนั้นทำการใช้ออพชัน upgrade เพื่อใช้ในการอัพเกรดแพคเก็จต่างๆ

#apt-get update
#apt-get upgrade

ค้นหาและติดตั้งแพคเก็จ
เช่นผมต้องการติดตั้งโปรแกรม Adobe Reader เวอร์ชัน 7.0 บน Fedora Core ผมสามารใช้ apt ดึงโปรแกรมและติดตั้งแบบอัตโนมัติได้ ก่อนอื่นผมค้นหาโปรแกรม adobe ดังนี้

#apt-cache search adobe

# apt-cache search adobe
perl-Font-AFM - Interface to Adobe Font Metrics files
enscript - A plain ASCII to PostScript converter.
urw-fonts - Free versions of the 35 standard PostScript fonts.
autotrace - A utility for converting bitmaps to vector graphics
gsview - PostScript and PDF previewer
inkscape - Vector-based drawing program using SVG
t1lib - PostScript Type 1 font rasterizer
tetex-eurofont - Provides a command that prints a euro symbol
ttf2pt1 - TrueType to Adobe Type 1 converter
AdobeReader_enu - Adobe Reader for Linux. An application that reads a PDF document.

เราก็จะเห็นมีโปรแกรม AdobeReader_enu อยู่ ตามที่ทำแถบสีไว้นะครับ จากนั้นก็ทำการติดตั้งโปรแกรมได้เลยครับ

#apt-get install AdobeReader_enu

ขั้นตอนการติดตั้ง Synaptic
synaptic คือโปรแกรมที่ใช้ในการจัดการแพคเก็จแบบ GUI ของ apt ครับ ซึ่งทำให้ง่ายในการจัดการแพคเก็จ

#yum install synaptic

จากนั้นก็ลองเรียกใช้งานโปรแกรม synaptic เลยครับ โดยอาจจะเรียกผ่านเมนู หรือ ใช้คำสั่งผ่านทางเทอร์มินอล ได้เลยครับ ถ้าเรียกผ่านเมนู จะอยู่ที่ System Settings => More System Settings => Synaptic Package Manager ครับ ถ้าจะเรียกผ่านเทอร์มินอลก็พิมพ์

#synaptic


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